Design, material and component selection.
The best design for the structure, (to ensure compatibility for design, market acceptance as well as accurate test results), is to be a small home complete with basement, targeting the low to mid income bracket.
Advanced Materials to be used in the structure include existing products such as ICF wall system, basement insulated slab on grade system, composite concrete intermediate floor system, High performance, dual glazed, low-E and argon filled windows, with exterior stucco and cultured stone systems.
New technologies developed include; A hybrid ICF composite concrete cast in place roof forming system utilizing both Formtech and Speedfloor components. A simplified radiant in floor heating system. Earth coupled geothermal water to water hydronic heating/cooling system, utilizing passive soils heat transfer methods to reduce loop lengths, and engineered soils to increase performance. An advanced air separator cleaning unit and fresh air energy recovery ventilation system complete with an integral mid volume air conditioning system.
New methods of installation including external vibration methods utilizing new technology. More efficient design and detailing methods. Introduction of new installation methods, which simplify and demystify the processes involved in the construction. Multi function or combined construction tasking, which combine two or more tasks into one. Lowered experience and knowledge requirements through efficient material selection, management practices, design, detailing, and scheduling.
Criteria included in design and developed products and/or techniques
Over the last years we have accumulated information and research into the needs of the building market place, and determined that the following base criteria for all products would have to be addressed within the design and/or construction of the building.
20 unit: dominoqq pkv, the cost of materials and/or labor would have to ensure that the current construction methods associated with ICF construction would have to decrease the total cost of the building by the offset cost of utilizing these types of products installed to current standards.
2. Efficiency. The material and labor components must comply with efficiency in design to reduce construction time, and reduce material requirements by a undetermined acceptable level. Material components should perform two or more construction or building functions per item, or combine several aspects required into the design, such as stay in place formwork.
3. Methods of construction. The methods of construction must simplify the construction process, allowing low skill labor to be utilized effectively.
4. Quality of construction. The Quality of the building must be increased to meet the new challenges of a modern world including Longevity, durability, strength, esthetics, operation, form and function.
5. Compatibility. The building must be constructed in such a matter as to be identical in form and function with current residential structures.
6. Versatility. Any normal residential structure must be able to be designed and built with the systems and methods, to ensure compliance with current designs in the construction industry.
7. Needs and shortfalls. The building has to address most, if not all, of the current needs and existing shortfalls in residential dwellings.
8. energy-efficient. Energy requirements should meet or exceed, even the highest standards of current construction materials and methods.
9. Environmental Friendly. The materials and methods should address as many environmental considerations as possible, including waste, energy required for production of materials, and energy required for construction. Low environmental impact products and methods of construction would be a must.
10. Manufacturing capability. All products and existing labor markets must be able to be easily adapted to meet the needs for construction of buildings of this type.
All materials and components as well as the manufacturers have been selected based on the product’s ability in speed, durability, workability, quality, strength, warranties and market acceptance from existing raw materials and/or processes.
Existing energy efficiencies for ICF wall systems rate about 30% more effective in overall heating and cooling when combined with current standards of wood truss roof installation and slab on grade basement installations. Knowing that the current energy loss’s in a heating climate for walls in residential structures is about 23% of the overall loss of a home, and the roof representing about 42% of the overall heat loss, I am assuming the following: 42% (total roof loss on a normal home)/ 23% (total wall loss on normal home)X 30% (the known effectiveness of ICF walls only on a home) should in theory increase the effectiveness of the above slab thermal envelope by about 54.78%.
This assuming comparative R-value increases, combined with reduced air infiltration and thermal conductance characteristic differences associated with ICF construction.
Below grade and under Slab effectiveness.
Although smaller, below grade and under slab loss’s do count in the overall building heat loss, and typically represent about 7% of the total heat loss on the building. This can be reduced substantially through the use of effective drainage of ground water, the inclusion of foil covered Expanded Polystyrene insulation to isolate the slab from the ground as well as ICF construction for the basement walls. By including 4″ of EPS foam, a reflective layer of foil, and effective subsurface drainage, we can increase the efficiency of slab on grades and below grade areas by about 67% over the current accepted standard of 6 mil polyethylene sheets only. Assuming these numbers to be accurate, we can include the following, 7% (total heat loss through the sub structure area) X 67% (effective increase in thermal performance of the slab) = 4.69% (total added savings overall to the heat loss characteristics). Adding this to the above slab thermal envelope effectiveness, we now have a building which is 59.47% more effective than standard construction methods.
Outside issues, such as windows and doors have an overall heat loss characteristic of about 17% on the total home, through infiltration, loss/gain and conductance. Primarily by incorporating a higher quality window, built with lower air infiltration rates. Less thermal conductance and the inclusion of affordable low E glass with Argon gas between two thermal panes. Existing studies and tests prove that these types of windows and doors increase the thermal performance of such units by about 30%. On a home, this a relatively high factor outside of standard construction, due to the extensive use of window area in design. We will be assuming normal use of about 15% of wall area. Assuming these numbers to be correct, we can, in theory say that 17% (heat loss through windows and doors in standard construction) X 30% (increase in performance of higher quality windows) = 5.10% (savings in heat loss for new structure). Adding this to total thermal envelope effectiveness, we now have a building which is 64.57% more effective than standard construction methods.